Writing 3-Dimensional Characters
Recently, I received this question from Kaila in my inbox:
I was wondering, could you please do a post on your "For Writer's" page about creating 3-dimensional characters?
At first, I was totally afraid to even TRY to tackle this question. I mean...gosh, are my characters 3D? Am I even talented enough or aware enough to talk about something so important?
But then I wrote in my newsletter last week about motivations and consequences, and I realized that—at least for ME—there are 3 things that make a character feel REAL when I'm reading.
Character motivation is the WHY of a character's actions. It's the WHY behind her goal, the WHY behind her inner and outer needs, and it's even the WHY behind her short temper and her inability to commit.
But no, you say, that's backstory! Backstory and history explain her short temper and inability to commit.
Ah, but not entirely. Yes, she's been burned by men before, so it's left her wary. But WHY does she use sarcasm and shouts to make her point? She could just as easily be closed-off and cold. What motivates her to behave the way she does? What does she subconsciously (or in full awareness) hope to achieve by behaving the way that she does?
If you don't understand these WHYS, then you'll have characters do things for the sake of the plot...Which means characters will act out of character—and readers will spot that stuff. I promise.
An example: In Truthwitch (which comes out next fall from Tor), I had one of my heroines keep a giant secret from her best friend. I mean, for the plot's sake, it worked to have her stay quiet, but on a motivation level, it just didn't make sense. These girls are the CLOSEST FRIENDS you can ever imagine—why would Noelle EVER keep a secret from Safi? Well, a few savvy critique partners asked that very question, and so I finally examined Noe's motivation for silence...
And it turned out she didn't have one. I was making Noe stay silent for the sake of the plot. And although changing the story so that there was no secret would require major revisions, I realized that it had to be done. Otherwise, there would always be that lingering question in the reader's mind of why Noelle did what she did. There would always be the nagging awareness that the character wasn't behaving quite right.
#2: Emotional Dominoes
In order for me to revise the book with this new awareness—the awareness that Noe wasn't motivated to keep secrets from Safi—I had to go back to the book's very first scene and work through every emotional beat in the book. All over again.
Now, I've talked about emotional dominoes before, and I will often write in my notes, What are my emotional dominoes?, and then go through each emotion scene by scene. I find this method is incredibly helpful for unsticking my plot, and I also find it INVALUABLE for revising my characters and building real people.
In the Truthwitch example, I had to look at what it meant for Noelle to have told Safi her secret. If Safi knows this bit of history about Noelle, how does it change their interactions? How does it change how they view each other? How they behave in each scene?
And, once I had adjusted one scene to reflect this "new normal", how did that effect the emotions in the next scene...and the next and the next?
Remember: every scene is linked. What happened before affects what's happening now, and it will also dictate what happens next. If you try to force emotions to fit a plot, well...You end up with a book that feels forced! And as I mentioned above: readers WILL notice!
Consequences are hard. These are very much linked to emotional dominoes—in fact, you could say that "consequences" are just a form of emotional domino. Cause and effect, right?
But what I mean when I say "consequences" is going all the way. I mean digging deep into emotions that scare you and writing raw, honest stuff.
There is nothing I hate more than a character dying and then everyone just sort of moving on! Or a character who commits a truly horrible act (perhaps the heroine keeps a secret which thereby causes the death of her love interest's family) and everyone just glosses over it—or worse, forgives her right away!
If an act is irredeemable in real life, it will also be irredeemable in fiction.
And if an act causes deep emotional response in real life, then it needs to cause deep emotional response in fiction.
So, as frightening as it may be to face the dark stuff in your heart, you've got to if you want your consequences to feel REAL.
If I return once more to the Truthwitch example, I realized as I was revising the book to incorporate Noe's secret that the reason I'd failed to have it in the first place was because I'd been scared of facing the consequences. I hadn't wanted to "go there" because "there" was a very scary place, and now that I had Noe's traumatic childhood secret out in the open, I was going to have to build those consequences and emotions into every single scene.
It wasn't easy, and I'm still not sure I got it right (thank goodness for multiple rounds of revision!). But I now understand Noelle's—and Safi's—characters so much better. I feel way more connected to them as people, and that in turn makes me care about and love the story even more.
Now, obviously we aren't ALL writing dark characters with twisted backstories. But even books that are funny and "fluffy" have loads of heart and can hit us right in the gut. I remember reading Lucy Sullivan Is Getting Married as a teenager and suddenly bursting into tears at the airport. I felt what Lucy felt (oh, Gus! You bastard!), and she was as real to me as if she were sitting next to me, waiting for her flight too.
The reason I connected to Lucy—the reason she felt 3-dimensional—was because I understood WHY she wanted love in her life. I understood why she made the often hilarious and often DUMB choices that she did. I totally understood why her failures brought her low, and every scene toppled neatly into the next. And, above all, when Lucy was faced with the final, really tough decisions, I FELT all the emotional weight that those decisions were due. (If you haven't read that book, I highly recommend it!! Romantic comedy at its finest!)
So there you have it: motivation, emotional dominoes, and consequences. Those are the 3 dimensions that make a real character for me.
What about you? How do you write 3-D characters?